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atoll - A continuous or broken circle of coral reef and low coral islands surrounding a central lagoon.autochthonous - Refers to something formed in its present location. backwash - The return flow of water down a beach after a wave has broken.
basalt - A fine-grained, dark, mafic igneous rock (~50% Si O) composed largely of plagioclase feldspar and pyroxene; rough volcanic equivalent of gabbro.
arroyo - A steep-sided and flat-bottomed gully in an arid region that is occupied by a stream only intermittently, after rains.
artesian well - A well that penetrates an impermeable layer of rock to reach an aquifer containing water under pressure.
Geology is the scientific study of the Earth, the materials of which it is made, the structure of those materials, and the processes acting upon them.
The Greek derivation of the word "geology" refers only to the Earth, but since the beginning of the space age, the field has expanded to include the study of the solid matter of other celestial bodies, such as Mars and the Moon.